Read e-book online 1914-1918: The History of the First World War PDF

By David Stevenson

ISBN-10: 0131172263

ISBN-13: 9780131172265

ISBN-10: 0140268170

ISBN-13: 9780140268171

In the summertime of 1914 Europe exploded right into a frenzy of mass violence. The battle that had international repercussions, destroying 4 empires and costing thousands of lives. Even the effective nations have been scarred for a new release, and we nonetheless this present day stay in the conflict's shadow. during this significant new research, released a few 90 years after the 1st global conflict started, David Stevenson re-examines the explanations, direction and effect of this 'war to finish war', putting it within the context of its period and exposing its underlying dynamics. His e-book presents a wide-ranging overseas historical past, drawing on insights from the most recent study. It deals compelling solutions to the most important questions on how this bad fight opened up: questions that stay disturbingly proper for our personal time

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Artillery pieces (usually referred to in the text as ‘guns’) were divided into cannon (long barrel with a flat/horizontal trajectory for the projectile) and howitzers or mortars (short barrel and curved/plunging trajectory). They were also categorized by their calibre (the diameter of the barrel bore), although many British guns were named after the weight of their ammunition. Thus the standard light cannon (‘field gun’) was the 75mm in the French army, the 77mm in the German army, and the 18-pounder in the British army.

Appointments and promotions in the services were handled by the military and naval cabinets in Wilhelm’s personal household. In these circumstances harmonizing foreign and military policy was peculiarly difficult, and as the Reich had no co-ordinating body like the Committee of Imperial Defence in Britain (or the National Security Council in the post–1945 USA), the responsibility rested with Wilhelm, who discharged it incompetently. 41 The system was neither representative nor coherent. Most Germans could vote for the Reichstag, but the upper house of the imperial legislature, the Bundesrat, represented the state governments, and elections to the Prussian lower house (the Landtag) used a ‘three-class’ franchise that advantaged the propertied.

Others were rotated through the general staff, where they studied military history, simulated campaigning through war games, manoeuvres, and staff rides, formulated tactical doctrine, and drew up the plans. Planning required information about potential enemies, and intelligence gathering (much of it overseen by staff officers posted abroad as military attachés) became routine. Prepared as contingency arrangements rather than necessarily being intended for application, the strategic plans might have become historical curiosities like their Cold War counterparts for nuclear exchanges across the Elbe.

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1914-1918: The History of the First World War by David Stevenson

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