By Richard H. Groshong
Geological buildings are 3 dimensional, but tend to be represented by means of, and - terpreted from, outcrop maps and constitution contour maps, either one of that are curved two-dimensional surfaces. Maps plus serial sections, referred to as 2½-D, supply a more in-depth method of 3 dimensionality. laptop know-how now permits geological interpretations to be constructed from the start in a completely 3 dim- sional surroundings. absolutely 3-D geological types permit much better interpre- tions and interpretations which are a lot more uncomplicated to percentage with different geologists and with most people. This e-book offers an outline of ideas for developing structural interpretations in 2-D, 2½-D and 3-D environments; for interpolating - tween and extrapolating past the keep watch over issues; and for validating the ultimate int- pretation. The underlying philosophy is that buildings are 3-dimensional strong our bodies and that info from through the constitution, no matter if in 2-D or 3D layout, could be built-in into an internally constant three-D interpretation. it truly is assumed that almost all clients of this publication will do their paintings on a working laptop or computer. C- sequently, the e-book presents quantitative structural equipment and methods which are designed to be used with spreadsheets, mapping software program, and third-dimensional c- puter-graphics courses. The e-book can also be meant to supply the history for knowing what interpretive software program, for instance, a working laptop or computer contouring p- gram, does instantly. such a lot strategies are awarded in either a conventional layout applicable for paper, pencil, and a pocket calculator, and in quantitative layout to be used with spreadsheets and computer-graphics or computer-aided-design programs.
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Extra info for 3-D Structural Geology: A Practical Guide to Quantitative Surface and Subsurface Map Interpretation
In the case of a conical fold, the orientation can be specified by the orientation of the axial surface and the orientation of the crestal line on a particular horizon. Common map symbols for folds are given in Fig. 21. 5 · Folds Fig. 21. Common map symbols for folds. Fold trend is indicated by the long line, plunge by the arrowhead, with amount of plunge given. The fold trend may be the axial trace, crest or trough line or a hinge line. a, b Anticline. c Overturned anticline; both limbs dip away from the core.
Time-migrated seismic profile from southern Appalachian fold-thrust belt (Maher 2002), displayed with approximately no vertical exaggeration. The vertical scale is two-way travel time in seconds. a Uninterpreted. 7 · Sources of Structural Data and Related Uncertainties Fig. 47. Seismic model of a faulted fold. a Geometry of the model, no vertical exaggeration. b Model time section based on normal velocity variations with lithology and depth. Vertical scale is two-way travel time in milliseconds.
If the forces are not equal vertically, then a forced fold is produced, regardless of the mechanical stratigraphy. Longitudinal contraction, transverse contraction, and longitudinal extension are end-member boundary conditions; they may be combined to produce folds with combined properties. Buckle folds normally form with the fold axes perpendicular to the maximum principal compressive stress, σ 1. The folds are long and relatively unchanging in geometry parallel to the fold axis but highly variable in cross section.
3-D Structural Geology: A Practical Guide to Quantitative Surface and Subsurface Map Interpretation by Richard H. Groshong