By Hala Zreiqat, Colin R. Dunstan, Vicki Rosen
Reviewing exhaustively the present cutting-edge of tissue engineering concepts for regenerating bones and joints by utilizing biomaterials, progress elements and stem cells, besides an research of the interactions among biomaterials, bone cells, progress elements and further stem cells and the way jointly skeletal tissues could be optimised, this ebook serves to focus on the significance of biomaterials composition, floor topography, architectural and mechanical homes in offering help for tissue regeneration.
Maximizing reader insights into the significance of the interaction of those attributes with bone cells (osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts) and cartilage cells (chondrocytes), this publication additionally presents a close reference as to how key signalling pathways are activated. The contribution of development components to force tissue regeneration and stem mobilephone recruitment is mentioned in addition to a evaluation the capability and demanding situations of grownup or embryonic mesenchymal stem cells to extra improve the formation of recent bone and cartilage tissues.
This ebook serves to illustrate the interconnectedness of biomaterials, bone/cartilage cells, progress components and stem cells in identifying the regenerative technique and hence the scientific outcome.
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Extra resources for A Tissue Regeneration Approach to Bone and Cartilage Repair
2012). Interestingly, we have observed that treatment of osteocytes in vitro with exogenous sclerostin also causes increased expression of the above genes, as well as others, which collectively suggest the induction of a catabolic phenotype in osteocytes by sclerostin. In particular, we have reported that sclerostin-induced carbonic anhydrase 2 can acidify the extracellular space and solubilise bone mineral (Kogawa et al. 2013). We have also shown that exposure of osteocytes to polyethylene particles in a 3-dimensional matrix induced a catabolic phenotype, characterised by increased expression of RANKL, IL-8, M-CSF (Atkins et al.
Such as Paget’s Disease of Bone or subchondral bone damage in osteoarthritis, bone necrosis due to ischemia or chemotherapy and bone defects caused by bone tumours and/or their surgical removal. Fortunately, bone tissue has a remarkable capacity to repair after structural damage and to regenerate after tissue loss. For example, given a favourable environment, both tissue-level matrix damage and macro-scale fractures usually heal, with the bone returning to its pre-injury size and shape. Likewise, bone lost during lactation or periods of weightlessness or bed rest can be recovered.
Dev Biol 284(2):311–322. 036 Zhang M, Yan Y, Lim YB, Tang D, Xie R, Chen A, Tai P, Harris SE, Xing L, Qin YX, Chen D (2009) BMP-2 modulates beta-catenin signaling through stimulation of Lrp5 expression and inhibition of beta-TrCP expression in osteoblasts. J Cell Biochem 108(4):896–905. 22319 Zhang X, Xie C, Lin AS, Ito H, Awad H, Lieberman JR, Rubery PT, Schwarz EM, O’Keefe RJ, Guldberg RE (2005b) Periosteal progenitor cell fate in segmental cortical bone graft transplantations: implications for functional tissue engineering.
A Tissue Regeneration Approach to Bone and Cartilage Repair by Hala Zreiqat, Colin R. Dunstan, Vicki Rosen