By Leslie A. Schuster
During this research of the existence and paintings of Saint-Nazaire's shipbuilding staff within the 30 years sooner than international struggle I, Schuster indicates that the results of commercial construction for staff differed sharply in keeping with their assets and stories. She information the competing identities and divergent values maintained by way of shipbuilding employees, demonstrating that they have been fostered by means of the interplay among kingdom courses, commercial construction, and the traditions pursued within the neighborhood realm. 3rd Republic financial regulations for shipbuilding promoted unemployment and employee dependence on nation officers over union leaders, and the asymmetric program of capitalist tools of construction intended a number of place of work stories that additional undercut organization.
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Additional resources for A Workforce Divided: Community, Labor, and the State in Saint-Nazaire's Shipbuilding Industry, 1880-1910
Many of the indigent fell victim to the 1849 cholera epidemic. 80. Brossard, De Nantes a Saint-Nazaire, 290-291; Notice sur le Developpement, 6-7. 81. Notice sur le Developpement, 15; Journal de Saint-Nazaire (12 October 1862); Reece, The Bretons, 46. 82. Journal de Saint-Nazaire, (3 August 1862). 83. Oppermann, "Agrandissement de la ville," 1-2. Cezaud also expected tax exemptions on building materials. 84. Brossard, De Nantes a Saint-Nazaire, 290-291. 85. AN 9AQ392 (140mi25) "Proces-Verbaux, Comite de Direction," 4, 24 February 1863.
73 While shedding draining financial duties, the Transat became the new company's major stockholder, and for the next fifteen years Transat construction and repair orders had top priority at the yard. In this way, the shipper retained Penhouet as its private shipbuilding yard yet had few risks. The new shipbuilding Societe followed the lead of the Loire and other builders in broadening its client base and diversifying production to include locomotives and marine machinery. It also purchased the Chantiers de Normandie near Rouen and redeveloped Penhouet to specialize in the construction of large luxury liners.
49. Board of Trade, Cost of Living, 145, 207, 291; Audiganne, La Region, 11. 50. Board of Trade, Cost of Living, 56, 210, 230, 288-291, 322; Societe de Geographie Commerciale, Saint-Nazaire, 52; Audiganne, La Region, 11. 51. The steady growth of Saint-Nazaire's maritime activity did little to alleviate widespread unemployment. William Sewell shows that in Marseilles in the 1840s increased maritime traffic meant an "increased level of employment" for dockers, rather than new hires. Saint-Nazaire may also have had an underemployed labor force on the docks.
A Workforce Divided: Community, Labor, and the State in Saint-Nazaire's Shipbuilding Industry, 1880-1910 by Leslie A. Schuster