By Frank Fahy
We take it with no consideration, yet with no it we perish and if we proceed to abuse it, it will possibly kill us after all. This interesting textual content offers an realizing and appreciation of the function that air performs in our surroundings and its significance when it comes to human existence and know-how. geared toward people who find themselves scientifically curious yet who've no professional education, it comprises no mathematical equations and depends the qualitative descriptions and analogies to give an explanation for the extra technical elements of the textual content including basic domestic experiments to demonstrate quite a number air-based phenomena. Liberally illustrated with a number line drawings and images, it recommends additional analyzing when you are stimulated to profit extra. This booklet deals important heritage analyzing for either physics lecturers and scholars.
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Additional resources for Air: The Excellent Canopy
Fortunate for us! 2 WHAT HAPPENS WHEN WE BREATHE? When we expand our chest cavity, the air pressure in the thoracic cavity between the lungs and the chest wall falls. The higher atmospheric pressure of the Air: the Supporter of Life 17 external air pushes it into the lungs. It travels through the branched bronchial tubes of progressively decreasing diameter and finally into the 300 million alveoli, which look like clusters of little balloons and have a very large surface area (about 100 square metres in male adults).
Viscous forces arise when adjacent layers of fluid have different speeds, so causing a shearing motion as illustrated by Fig. 2 in which a thin layer of fluid is sandwiched between two plane surfaces, one of which is sliding past the other: the fluid 'sticks' to each of the surfaces. The fluid is sheared, which creates shear forces that act so as to reduce the speed difference. Newton postulated that the viscous force per unit area (stress) is proportional to the rate of shear, which is given by the velocity difference (V1 - V2 ) divided by the gap width d.
It is said that the 'flutr on new tennis balls plays the same role. A similar phenomenon is employed on some aircraft wings to reduce pressure drag. Arrays of small, upstanding tabs (vortex generators) set at an angle to the airflow are distributed over the forward upper surface of the wings. These stimulate mixing of the boundary layer flow with the high speed free flow and thereby energise the former and suppress boundary layer separation. Aerodynamics and Flight 35 The surprising indirect influence of viscosity and the associated boundary layer is the flow phenomenon that Prandtl revealed as a principal cause of drag except in flows of very low Reynolds number (very small objects such as plant spores or very low speeds or very viscous fluids such as treacle).
Air: The Excellent Canopy by Frank Fahy