By John L. Provis, Jannie S. J. van Deventer
This is a cutting-edge file because of the paintings of RILEM Technical Committee 224-AAM within the interval 2007-2013. The document summarises learn to this point within the zone of alkali-activated binders and concretes, with a specific specialize in the subsequent components: binder layout and characterisation, sturdiness trying out, commercialisation, standardisation, and delivering a historic context for this rapidly-growing learn field.
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Additional resources for Alkali Activated Materials: State-of-the-Art Report, RILEM TC 224-AAM
For an overview of silicate and hydroxide solution chemistry, the reader is also referred to reference , and for reaction processes involving carbonate or sulfate activating solutions, to the book by Shi, Krivenko and Roy . 4 mol/kg H2O at 25 °C ). By comparison, both sodium and potassium hydroxides are soluble in water up to concentrations exceeding 20 mol/kg H2O at 25 °C [79, 80], and concentrations exceeding 5 mol/kg H2O are widely used in studies related to alkali-activation, particularly when using class F fly ash precursors.
L. Provis et al. 26 Fig. 3 Crystallisation isotherms for hydrated sodium metasilicate phases at 25 °C and ambient pressure, plotted from the tabulated data of Wills . The phase Na3HSiO4·5H2O, which is reported at relatively high Na2O and low SiO2 concentrations, is not depicted (Plot adapted from ) of hydroxide solutions, where the excess alkali reacts with atmospheric CO2. This is unsightly, but not always harmful to the structural integrity of the material. Efflorescence is generally more marked in the presence of Na than K in hydroxideactivated binders.
The direct Greenhouse impact of these processes is somewhat less than the impact of the production of hydroxide or silicate solutions, but the alkalinity of carbonate solutions is lower than that of the other activating solutions, meaning that the selection of aluminosilicate raw materials with which carbonate activators may be used is narrower, as will be discussed in detail in Chaps. 3, 4, and 5. Potassium carbonates, or the carbonates of other alkali metals, have not often been used in preparation of alkali-activated binders.
Alkali Activated Materials: State-of-the-Art Report, RILEM TC 224-AAM by John L. Provis, Jannie S. J. van Deventer