By Thomas R. Martin
During this compact but finished background of historical Greece, Thomas R. Martin brings alive Greek civilization from its Stone Age roots to the fourth century B.C. targeting the advance of the Greek city-state and the society, tradition, and structure of Athens in its Golden Age, Martin integrates political, army, social, and cultural heritage in a ebook that would attract scholars and basic readers alike. Now in its moment variation, this vintage paintings now positive factors new maps and illustrations, a brand new advent, and updates throughout.
"A limpidly written, hugely obtainable, and complete background of Greece and its civilizations from prehistory throughout the cave in of Alexander the Great's empire...A hugely readable account of old Greece, really priceless as an introductory or overview textual content for the coed or the overall reader."—Kirkus Reviews
"A polished and informative paintings that might be valuable for basic readers and students."—Daniel Tompkins, Temple college
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Extra info for Ancient Greece (2nd Edition)
10, which reveal a very large imbalance in favor of the elderly in indirect social beneﬁts, indicate that the overall balance between age groups may not have changed all that much in Australia since 1986. Rather, subsidization of the elderly seems to be increasingly undertaken through the tax system, while support for the non-elderly continues to ﬂow through direct expenditures. A time series in tax expenditures dating from before the pension reform would be invaluable in conﬁrming or refuting this possibility.
14 2 Measuring the Age of Welfare Welfare states clearly work to transfer resources between age groups, not least through pay-as-you-go old-age pensions, which account for one-ﬁfth to one-half of total social spending in most countries of the OECD. But the elderly in different countries beneﬁt to varying extents not only from crossnational differences in the generosity of pension beneﬁts, but also from differences in other policy areas, such as housing and health care. 2 In particular, we know very little about how social provisions for different age groups vary across welfare state types, across countries, or across time.
But while this contribution was an important ﬁrst step toward the goal of measuring the age orientation of social policy, a restricted sample size and highly aggregate spending data limited the analysis. Meyer and Moon (1988) and Jencks and Torrey (1988) expanded the categories of analysis beyond the conﬁnes of social insurance spending but, as did O’Higgins (1988) and Pampel (1994), compared the situations of only the elderly and children, leaving out the middle ground of adulthood, where contemporary welfare states have had such widely varying success in adjusting to changes in employment and family patterns.
Ancient Greece (2nd Edition) by Thomas R. Martin